PHY689 spring 2018

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Class meet time and dates Instructors
  • When: Wed., 5:00-7:50p. Starts Jan. 24, 2018
  • Where: SBU, Earth & Space Sci. Bldg, Room 183
  • Prof. François Méot

Course Overview

  • This course is an introduction to particle accelerators, hands on, based on computer laboratory work - the essential of the time of the course.

During this course students will manipulate charged particle beams and accelerator components, **in a virtual world of real-world type of particle accelerators**, just like accelerator physics and design experts do in their labs.

  • So doing students will discover most types of existing particle accelerators and theoretical and practical aspects of their main technological components. They will learn the basic principles of beam dynamics and physics which accelerators lean on, via active numerical simulations using a couple of dedicated, popular, beam dynamics and beam optics computer programs. They will learn on special aspects of accelerator beams: polarized particle beams, production of synchrotron radiation, medical beam manipulations. They will learn on applications of accelerators: oncology, condensed matter physics, nuclear and high energy physics, etc.
  • Students will run these computer programs and manage the input data they need and the output data they produce, using ad hoc software interfaces and other data treatment computer tools. They will constantly confront their experimental beam dynamics findings with theoretical expectations, they will interactively play with both : experimentation regarding particle beams in accelerators and in accelerator components, and the underlying theory.
  • The course will introduce to a wide variety of applied mathematics and numerical methods, from interpolation to ODE solving to Fourier analysis. Popular software tools will be used such as gnuplot (plotting), latex (writing reports, presenting), python. Programming and debugging will represent a substantial part of the time.
  • So doing, and this is part of the goals of this course, students will develop/exploit their programming, computing and system software skills, use/increase their knowledge of computer languages and beam optics/dynamics programs. In a general manner, this course will require the students to carry out numerous programming or other computing tasks under linux environment.
  • So... Yes! Bring your laptop, it will be an essential tool. Preferred system: linux. Otherwise, a linux emulator or equivalent capabilities, on other systems. A Fortran compiler is needed.

Course Content

  • During the course we will navigate, in the manner described in the "Course Overview" above, through the following list of topics, as time allows :

- cyclotron, transverse stability, CW acceleration,

- betatron, betatron motion, induction acceleration,

- synchro-cyclotron, longitudinal stability,

- pulsed synchrotron, weak and strong focusing,

- particle colliders, spin dynamics,

- light source, synchrotron radiation damping, insertion devices, synchrotron light,

- recirculating linear accelerators,

- electrostatic accelerators, mass spectrometry,

- beam lines.

  • Numerical experiments - the every day's task - will include a variety of beam physics and dynamics topics drawn from such themes as

- focussing, periodic stability, acceleration,

- phase space motion,

- non-linear dynamics, resonances, defects and tolerances

- production of synchrotron radiation, Poynting vector, spectral brightness,

- polarization and other Siberian snakes,

- radio-biological/medical beam manipulations,

- in-flight particle decay of short-lived particles,

- beam purification, spectrometry.

Learning Goals

  • The course will prepare graduate students with no prior experience for the understanding of the physics and dynamics of charged particle beams, and of the design of particle accelerators. Running computer programs has a variety of goals : applying numerical methods to solve problems for which analytical methods have limitations, producing, collecting, analyzing and understanding numerical simulation data, presenting and reporting results using appropriate media. This course will allow students to attain a level of knowledge needed to thrive in the field of particle accelerator R&D.
  • Following completion of this study/computer lab period, students will have learned/increased their knowledge, in various domains, including

- The history of particle accelerators

- Beam optics

- Physics and dynamics of charge particle beams, their manipulation

- Application of accelerators: medical, X-ray source, the quest for fundamental particles

- Synchrotron radiation, spin dynamics and other Siberian snakes

- Programing, debugging, using big computer codes

- Many other aspects of particle accelerator science and technology

- And reporting: via real-world style of scientific written reports and other slide presentations.

Course Procedure

Textbook and suggested materials

  • Recommended readings in preparation for the course:

- In CASE PHY554 (

 Lectures 1 to 7 and Lecture 9, by Profs. V.N. Litvinenko and Y. Jing

- In "CAS - CERN Accelerator School : 5th General Accelerator Physics Course", Yellow-Report CERN-94-01, (*%22&f=reportnumber&sf=chronologicalorder&so=a&sp=CERN&rm=):

 A brief history and review of accelerators, P.J. Bryant, (pp.1-14),
 Basic course on accelerator optics, J. Rossbach, P. Schmüser (pp. 17-79)
 Beam phase space and emittance, J. Buon (pp.89-103)
 Longitudinal beam dynamics in circular accelerators, J. Le Duff (pp.289-309)
  • Later during this course session, we will see that in due time, additional readings will be needed (from journal articles, scientific publication supports, etc.), regarding, e.g.,
 'Synchrotron radiation', 'Radiation damping', 'Quantum excitation and equilibrium', R.P. Walker, (pp.437-454, 461-477, 481-494).


  • Students will be active most of the time during the course: constructing accelerators, manipulating and accelerating particle beams, discussing their progress, programming/debugging. Home work will be largely based on pursuing or "finishing" the studies undertaken during the course. A preferred way of returning the "home work" will be under the form of short written scientific-style reports, or slide presentations to the class, or both, by individuals or 2~3 student teams.
  • Students, in a duo~trio team, will have to complete a research project over the duration of the lecture session. This project will be returned at the end of the session (May 2018), under the form of a detailed slide presentation. Or instead, under the form a scientific journal-style article. Or both. This will be discussed in due time.
   Participation during the class - 30% of the grade
   Homework assignments - 30% of the grade
   Project (May) - 60% of the grade
   (The total is 120%)

Research project

  • The research project represents 60% of the final grade.

A substantial part of the initial time spent by students on the project, namely, the initial phase in starting any of the proposed projects, will be the bibliographical research. The quality of, and written reporting on, this preliminary research, will represent as well a substantial part of the grade.

A project will can chosen from this list : PHY689_projects.pdf. Initiatives are welcome: students attracted in a particular research topic, independently of that list, are encouraged/welcome to make proposals.

  • Research projects will be taken from the following thematics:

- construction of an accelerator,

- simulations and analysis: regarding beam dynamics, or spin dynamics, or synchrotron radiation, etc.,

- complementing/enhancing sections of these very PHY689 lectures,

- contribution to the development of existing beam optics/dynamics codes,

- development of accelerator code interfaces,

- and more.

  • Students are encouraged to work on the research project by team
  • The project will be concluded by its grading phase, grading will rely on

- a detailed slide presentation

- or a detailed written report

- or both,

to be completed in due time sometime in May 2018.

Course Schedule

  • The course schedule will follow the "Course Content" above, as time allows, and with much flexibility as to the topics and the time spent on a topic, depending on the difficulty, students' interest, etc.

List of projects: PHY689_projects.pdf / Planet of the Accelerators / A flight-simulator engine: getting started

Home Work (Jan. 24) / Home Work (Jan. 31)

  • Phase 2: Cyclotron

Introduction / Computer Lab work / Complement: isochronous cyclotron.

Home Work (Feb. 07); Home Work (Feb. 14)

  • Phase 3: synchro-cyclotron, betatron

Introduction / Computer Lab work (betatron project: guidance)

  • Phase 4: synchrotron, weak focusing

Introduction / Computer Lab work

  • Phase 5: synchrotron, strong focusing


  • Phase 6: FFAG


  • Phase 7: Light source


  • Phase 8: Circular collider


  • Phase 9: Spectrometry

Introduction / Computer Lab work

  • Various class material

PHY689 project, reporting: Latex material and template for a "Lab. Tech. Note" style of report

Lab work material: Cyclotron, exercise 1.1-1 (field map generator, zgoubi input data file, gnuplot files)

Zgoubi interfacing: Introduction to PyZgoubi, AGS booster example (Kiel Hock)