Difference between revisions of "PHY695 fall 2021"

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* Dr. Ram Dhuley
 
* Dr. Ram Dhuley
 
* Dr. Matt Hollister
 
* Dr. Matt Hollister
* Arkadiy Klebaner
+
* Dr. Arkadiy Klebaner
 
* David Montanari
 
* David Montanari
 
</td>
 
</td>
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*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1UPCXUT9gVSJxSDxxRbOM4Mv6QECkkWqH/view?usp=sharing Lecture 11: Cryogenic cycles]'''
 
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1UPCXUT9gVSJxSDxxRbOM4Mv6QECkkWqH/view?usp=sharing Lecture 11: Cryogenic cycles]'''
 
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iBAqbA8pM0DMfOYRcel7MsQGu7WsQbsZ/view?usp=sharing Lecture 12: Liquefaction and Refrigeration]'''
 
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iBAqbA8pM0DMfOYRcel7MsQGu7WsQbsZ/view?usp=sharing Lecture 12: Liquefaction and Refrigeration]'''
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1pJrwx-wZV9M0m-Fie3hSg4mO6s3Xtc_i/view?usp=sharing Lecture 13: Cryogenic storage]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1GtmWhFnajzT2uxBDu92PKpj4CuX5m3MG/view?usp=sharing Lecture 13: Cryogenic storage]'''
 
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Zby4otxZt0wqESnXEu_UpbG0HMw-zTS6/view?usp=sharing Lecture 14: Basics of cryogenic systems design]'''
 
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Zby4otxZt0wqESnXEu_UpbG0HMw-zTS6/view?usp=sharing Lecture 14: Basics of cryogenic systems design]'''
 
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/10ZOleIDZU2o6r80NqtBIMEjTXW6rNoYX/view?usp=sharing Lecture 15: Cryogenic Instrumentation]'''
 
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/10ZOleIDZU2o6r80NqtBIMEjTXW6rNoYX/view?usp=sharing Lecture 15: Cryogenic Instrumentation]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 16: Introduction to Sub-1 Kelvin cryogenics]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1bfHyGmRNN6zo3oM_mbab03G8kPMWkvvu/view?usp=sharing Lecture 16: Introduction to Sub-1 Kelvin cryogenics]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 17: Quantum Computing and Information]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1bjoO6n3yyvNZptFMdVnqxiwy0vVgx6Mz/view?usp=sharing Lecture 17: Quantum Computing and Information]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 17: Dark Matter Detection]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1IRLHd871nTZkZ9e7IOPqZdlUvdL7NCOJ/view?usp=sharing Lecture 17: Dark Matter Detection]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 17: CMB Astrophysics]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Xt1VjQ6mAq-qyZkcB8ROUFzAnWqNR3O1/view?usp=sharing Lecture 17: CMB Astrophysics]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 18: Materials and other considerations at Sub-1 Kelvin temperatures]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1NA2MBpG26Qrb8yPxR_d8F35QzQbW9E3l/view?usp=sharing Lecture 18: Materials and other considerations at Sub-1 Kelvin temperatures]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 19: Pumped Helium-4 and Helium-3 refrigerators]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1CPgoGUUUJVyerGkgQL-C59DifDbd8IGV/view?usp=sharing Lecture 19: Pumped Helium-4 and Helium-3 refrigerators]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 20: Dilution Refrigerators]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-dq0W-IXPGuSZz8W3FQdMfBTQIMhyqnO/view?usp=sharing Lecture 20: Dilution Refrigerators]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 21: Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1h33z0SMl-WOqq7jWaStOncKpU30WNGcs/view?usp=sharing Lecture 21: Cryogenic Instrumentation II - Thermometry]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 22: Thermometry at Sub-1 Kelvin temperatures]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1RkvfLRRIPD7u7YsMVUjItWxOtLN1UJKi/view?usp=sharing Lecture 22: Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 23: Nuclear Demagnetization and Pomeranchuk Cooling]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/11GFzG9ILq8H55rVkDjdOaVdBFStwktCW/view?usp=sharing Lecture 23: Nuclear Demagnetization and Pomeranchuk Cooling]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 24: Cryogenic equipment]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/13x0Y8B-DraqgcTLPeq8Ruj6vuvAADFOO/view?usp=sharing Lecture 24: SRF - invited]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 25: SRF - invited]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/13x0Y8B-DraqgcTLPeq8Ruj6vuvAADFOO/view?usp=sharing Lecture 25: SRF - invited] - Same link as Lecture 24'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 26: SRF - invited]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Uc_vyrMTLhz_QqGfobdkaspVGYVY9TBd/view?usp=sharing Lecture 26: Thermoacoustic Oscillations]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 27: Cryostat design]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-gVgrmLJ3navINi1WaVRtJDzoKAwN02W/view?usp=sharing Lecture 27: Cryogenic safety]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 28: Cryogenic safety]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Aak7H9FXzfKKX37afQyqrziZ4UNvLhem/view?usp=sharing Lecture 28: LBNF/DUNE - invited]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 29: LBNF/DUNE - invited]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1mN-5npgyiTPO__03Y5-Ldpv2o8BeMS8T/view?usp=sharing Lecture 29: Helium-II Cryogenic system]'''
*'''[Add Link Lecture 30: Helium-II Cryogenic system - invited]'''
+
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1OGJsrJyNLSOZgYfCR1ptbHHjYqMHPJ2b/view?usp=sharing Lecture 30: Cryostat design]'''
 +
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1mew6GFKpN6QctTNwVw-C4HUJ-xVhj9rg/view?usp=sharing Lecture 31: Cryogenic Controls]'''
 +
*'''[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1bj7E4Eil4sZqasHjcx91wGZVtASzrRTl/view?usp=sharing Class Recap and Final Exam Instructions]'''
  
 
== Homework==
 
== Homework==
 
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1zWQe0QU9GEVDh9xpqUrSxPzl-i8MOPIV/view?usp=sharing HW1]] Due at 4:30pm on September 9, 2021
 
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1zWQe0QU9GEVDh9xpqUrSxPzl-i8MOPIV/view?usp=sharing HW1]] Due at 4:30pm on September 9, 2021
 
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1qjTa0uFPm4cwX_Od_jVcuSjPkhxbQvlq/view?usp=sharing HW2]] Due at 4:30pm on September 23, 2021
 
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1qjTa0uFPm4cwX_Od_jVcuSjPkhxbQvlq/view?usp=sharing HW2]] Due at 4:30pm on September 23, 2021
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1bVrTC8pTswM9JP1EVU4VGoMZtoQQ0Bpi/view?usp=sharing HW3]] Due at 4:30pm on October 14, 2021
+
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1vwfoMSG6wP3KHxSPyE28a29VHsgLCx6Y/view?usp=sharing HW3]] Due at 4:30pm on October 14, 2021
*'''[[Add link HW4]] Due at 4:30pm on November 4, 2021
+
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1kG2sRIQPmDt9kOPu5hZpVoodXrrrPNAp/view?usp=sharing HW4]] Due at 4:30pm on November 4, 2021
*'''[[Add link HW5]] Due at 4:30pm on November 18, 2021
+
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1J1RYjBItXDlCPz4mCClAkGYpzCQ_OVKG/view?usp=sharing HW5]] Due at 4:30pm on November 24, 2021
 
   
 
   
  
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*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1QQelUHCvchbU5OVJGrt_MTaQ1g-51u13/view?usp=sharing Session 1]] September 9, 2021'''
 
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1QQelUHCvchbU5OVJGrt_MTaQ1g-51u13/view?usp=sharing Session 1]] September 9, 2021'''
 
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1bAUoLKOavajm5OZ0PfJQVWYkUxZZZBr-/view?usp=sharing Session 2]] September 23, 2021'''
 
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1bAUoLKOavajm5OZ0PfJQVWYkUxZZZBr-/view?usp=sharing Session 2]] September 23, 2021'''
*'''[[Add link Session 3]] October 14, 2021'''
+
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1bdWHJUE3aCDVD5m39_q9v3YK_aTbYee9/view?usp=sharing Session 3]] October 14, 2021'''
*'''[[Add link Session 4]] November 4, 2021'''
+
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1X-3LHQwP3d-vAY1ahLXg46CWP446llRg/view?usp=sharing Session 4]] November 4, 2021'''
*'''[[Add link Session 5]] November 18, 2021'''
+
*'''[[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Iiqmusd9yYHwj4zw2NWY952sai6Z-aTz/view?usp=sharing Session 5]] November 24, 2021'''
  
  
 
'''[[Add link Final Exam]] due December 16'''
 
'''[[Add link Final Exam]] due December 16'''

Revision as of 01:22, 3 December 2021

Class meet time and dates Instructors
  • When: Thursdays 5:45 pm - 8:45 pm
  • Where: Remotely via Zoom. A Zoom link will be sent to registered students via email before the first lecture.

  • Dr. Ram Dhuley
  • Dr. Matt Hollister
  • Dr. Arkadiy Klebaner
  • David Montanari


Course Overview

This graduate level course covers fundamental aspects of cryogenics systems and engineering properties of materials and fluids at low temperatures, cryogenic heat transfer and fluid dynamics, and low temperature refrigeration systems. Special focus will be on the physics and engineering aspects of liquid helium, ultra-pure liquid argon, and sub-Kelvin systems and their application in the cooling of contemporary particle accelerators, detectors, and sensors.

The course is intended for graduate students pursuing accelerator physics as well as graduate engineers and physicists who want to familiarize themselves with cryogenics.


Course Content

The course will begin with an introduction to cryogenics, including a brief history of the low temperature field and temperature measurement. The properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures and cryogenic fluids will then be discussed. Achieving cryogenic temperatures will be described, with particular emphasis on liquefaction and closed cycle refrigeration, followed by discussion of fluid and superfluid properties of helium. The discussion of refrigeration technologies will be extended below 1 Kelvin with the introduction of Helium-3 cryogenics and the dilution refrigerator, among other techniques. The concept of Argon purification to parts per trillion levels to enable very high purity neutrino experiments is also introduced. Finally, the related fields of cryogenic instrumentation and cryogenic safety will be presented.


Learning Goals

Upon completion of this course, students are expected to understand the physics behavior of systems and materials operating at cryogenic temperatures, and the technologies used to achieve and maintain temperatures at and below that of liquid helium. The aim is to provide students with ideas and approaches that enable them to evaluate and solve problems related to the application of cryogenic technologies to particle accelerators and quantum technologies.


Textbook and suggested materials

It is recommended that students re-familiarize themselves with the fundamentals of thermodynamics.

While all necessary material will be provided during lectures, we recommend the following textbook for in-depth study of the subject:

  • K. Timmerhaus and T. Flynn, Cryogenic Process Engineering, Plenum (1989).

Additional suggested reference books:

  • F. Pobell, Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures, Third Edition, Springer (2007).
  • S. W. Van Sciver, Helium Cryogenics, Second Edition, Springer (2012).
  • J. W. Ekin, Experimental Techniques for Low Temperature Measurements, Oxford (2006).


Grades

This course includes a series of lectures and exercise sessions. Homework problems will be assigned. Homework will be graded, and answers provided in the exercise sessions. There will be a final exam at the conclusion of the course.

Students will be evaluated based on the following performance criteria: final exam (50%), homework assignments and class participation (50%).


Lecture Notes

Homework

  • [HW1] Due at 4:30pm on September 9, 2021
  • [HW2] Due at 4:30pm on September 23, 2021
  • [HW3] Due at 4:30pm on October 14, 2021
  • [HW4] Due at 4:30pm on November 4, 2021
  • [HW5] Due at 4:30pm on November 24, 2021


Homework review sessions


Add link Final Exam due December 16