PHY695 fall 2021
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This graduate level course covers fundamental aspects of cryogenics systems and engineering properties of materials and fluids at low temperatures, cryogenic heat transfer and fluid dynamics, and low temperature refrigeration systems. Special focus will be on the physics and engineering aspects of liquid helium, ultra-pure liquid argon, and sub-Kelvin systems and their application in the cooling of contemporary particle accelerators, detectors, and sensors.
The course is intended for graduate students pursuing accelerator physics as well as graduate engineers and physicists who want to familiarize themselves with cryogenics.
The course will begin with an introduction to cryogenics, including a brief history of the low temperature field and temperature measurement. The properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures and cryogenic fluids will then be discussed. Achieving cryogenic temperatures will be described, with particular emphasis on liquefaction and closed cycle refrigeration, followed by discussion of fluid and superfluid properties of helium. The discussion of refrigeration technologies will be extended below 1 Kelvin with the introduction of Helium-3 cryogenics and the dilution refrigerator, among other techniques. The concept of Argon purification to parts per trillion levels to enable very high purity neutrino experiments is also introduced. Finally, the related fields of cryogenic instrumentation and cryogenic safety will be presented.
Upon completion of this course, students are expected to understand the physics behavior of systems and materials operating at cryogenic temperatures, and the technologies used to achieve and maintain temperatures at and below that of liquid helium. The aim is to provide students with ideas and approaches that enable them to evaluate and solve problems related to the application of cryogenic technologies to particle accelerators and quantum technologies.
Textbook and suggested materials
It is recommended that students re-familiarize themselves with the fundamentals of thermodynamics.
While all necessary material will be provided during lectures, we recommend the following textbook for in-depth study of the subject:
- K. Timmerhaus and T. Flynn, Cryogenic Process Engineering, Plenum (1989).
Additional suggested reference books:
- F. Pobell, Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures, Third Edition, Springer (2007).
- S. W. Van Sciver, Helium Cryogenics, Second Edition, Springer (2012).
- J. W. Ekin, Experimental Techniques for Low Temperature Measurements, Oxford (2006).
This course includes a series of lectures and exercise sessions. Homework problems will be assigned. Homework will be graded, and answers provided in the exercise sessions. There will be a final exam at the conclusion of the course.
Students will be evaluated based on the following performance criteria: final exam (50%), homework assignments and class participation (50%).
- Lecture 1: Introduction, course goals and introduction to cryogenic engineering
- Lecture 2: Thermodynamics for cryogenics
- Lecture 3: Properties of cryogenics fluids
- Lecture 4: Superfluid helium properties
- Lecture 5: Low temperature properties of materials
- Lecture 6: LCLS-II Cryogenics - invited
- Lecture 7: Cryogenic Fluid Mechanics
- Lecture 8: Cryogenic Heat Transfer
- Lecture 9: Liquid argon cryogenics
- Lecture 10: Liquid argon cryogenics - Part 2 - Same link as Lecture 9
- Lecture 11: Cryogenic cycles
- Lecture 12: Liquefaction and Refrigeration
- Lecture 13: Cryogenic storage
- Lecture 14: Basics of cryogenic systems design
- Lecture 15: Cryogenic Instrumentation
- Lecture 16: Introduction to Sub-1 Kelvin cryogenics
- Lecture 17: Quantum Computing and Information
- Lecture 17: Dark Matter Detection
- Lecture 17: CMB Astrophysics
- Lecture 18: Materials and other considerations at Sub-1 Kelvin temperatures
- Lecture 19: Pumped Helium-4 and Helium-3 refrigerators
- Lecture 20: Dilution Refrigerators
- Lecture 21: Cryogenic Instrumentation II - Thermometry
- Lecture 22: Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators
- Lecture 23: Nuclear Demagnetization and Pomeranchuk Cooling
- [Add Link Lecture 24: Cryogenic equipment]
- [Add Link Lecture 25: SRF - invited]
- [Add Link Lecture 26: SRF - invited]
- [Add Link Lecture 27: Cryostat design]
- [Add Link Lecture 28: Cryogenic safety]
- [Add Link Lecture 29: LBNF/DUNE - invited]
- [Add Link Lecture 30: Helium-II Cryogenic system - invited]
- [HW1] Due at 4:30pm on September 9, 2021
- [HW2] Due at 4:30pm on September 23, 2021
- [HW3] Due at 4:30pm on October 14, 2021
- [HW4] Due at 4:30pm on November 4, 2021
- Add link HW5 Due at 4:30pm on November 24, 2021
Homework review sessions
- [Session 1] September 9, 2021
- [Session 2] September 23, 2021
- [Session 3] October 14, 2021
- Add link Session 4 November 4, 2021
- Add link Session 5 November 24, 2021
Add link Final Exam due December 16