PHY543 spring 2021
Class meet time and dates  Instructors 



Contents
Course Overview
TThis graduate level course covers application of radio frequency (RF) superconductivity to contemporary particle accelerators: particle colliders, storage rings for Xray production, pulsed and CW linear accelerators (linacs), energy recovery linacs (ERLs), etc. The course addresses both physics and engineering aspects of the field. It covers fundamentals of RF superconductivity, types of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerating structures, performancelimiting phenomena, beamcavity interaction issues specific to superconducting cavities, approaches to designing SRF systems and engineering of superconducting cavity cryomodules. The course is intended for students interested in accelerator physics and technology who want to learn about application of RF superconductivity to particle accelerators.
Course Content
 The course includes a brief introduction of the basic concepts of microwave cavities and fundamental concepts of RF superconductivity.
 Then it covers the beamcavity interaction issues in accelerators: wake fields and higherorder modes (HOMs) in superconducting structures, associated bunched beam instabilities and approaches to deal with these instabilities (HOM absorbers and couplers, cavity geometry optimization, …), bunch length manipulation with SRF cavities, beam loading effects, etc.
 Following that we discuss a systems approach and its application to SRF systems for accelerators.
 We discuss the ways in which the superconducting material, and in particular the surface, can be modified to improve quality factor and accelerating gradient.
 Finally, we address issues related to engineering of the SRF system components: cryostats, cavities, input couplers, HOM loads, and frequency tuners.
Learning Goals
Upon completion of this course, students are expected to understand the physics underlying RF superconductivity and its application to accelerators, as well as the advantages and limitations of SRF technology. The aim is to provide students with ideas and approaches that enable them to evaluate and solve problems related to the application of superconducting cavities to accelerators, as well actively participate in the development of SRF systems for various accelerators.
Main Texts and suggested materials
While all necessary material will be provided during lectures, we recommend the following textbook for indepth study of the subject:
 RF Superconductivity for Accelerators, by H. Padamsee, J. Knobloch, and T. Hays, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edition (2008).
Other Reading Recommendations It is recommended that students refamiliarize themselves with the fundamentals of electrodynamics at the level of
 Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics (Chapters 1 through 11) by S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. Van Duzer, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd edition (1994)
 Classical Electrodynamics (Chapters 1 through 8) by J. D. Jackson, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd edition (1999)
or other similar textbooks. Additional reference books:
 Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering, edited by A. W. Chao, K. H. Mess, M. Tigner, and F. Zimmermann, World Scientific, 2nd Edition (2013)
 RF Superconductivity: Science, Technology, and Applications, by H. Padamsee, WileyVCH (2009)
Online resources:
 The Physics of Electron Storage Rings: An Introduction, by M. Sands
 Microwave Theory and Applications, by S. F. Adam
 High Energy Electron Linacs: Applications to Storage Ring RF Systems and Linear Colliders, by Perry B. Wilson
Grades
Students will be evaluated based on the following performance criteria: final exam (50%), homework assignments and class participation (50%). Credits earned upon successful completion of this course can be applied toward receiving a Certificate in Accelerator Science and Engineering under the Ernest Courant Traineeship in Accelerator Science & Engineering.
Lecture Notes
 Lecture 1: Introduction, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 2: Brief survey of particle accelerators, by Dr. Posen
 Lecture 3: RF fundamentals, part 1, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 4: RF fundamentals, part 2, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 5: SRF fundamentals, part 1, by Dr. Posen
 Lecture 6: SRF fundamentals, part 2, by Dr. Posen
 Lecture 7: Cavity performance frontier, by Dr. Posen
 Lecture 8: Related phenomena, by Dr. Petrushina
 Lecture 9: SRF system requirements, by Dr. Posen
 Lecture 10: Beamcavity interactions, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 1112: Systems engineering, parts 1 and 2, by Dr. Posen
 Lecture 13: Cavity design, by Dr. Petrushina
 Lecture 14: Cryomodule design, by Dr. Posen
 Lecture 15: Fundamental power couplers, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 16: HOM dampers, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 17: Cavity frequency tuners, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 18: Cavity fabrication and processing, by Dr. Posen
 Lecture 19: SRF cavity testing and instrumentation, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 20: High power RF sources, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 21: Case study: LCLSII, by Prof. Belomestnykh
 Lecture 2223: Refrigerationand cryogenics. Low temperature material properties and heat transfer, by Mr. Klebaner
 Lecture 24: SRF in quantum regime, by Dr. Posen
 Lecture 25: Overview of remaining SRF challenges, by Prof. Belomestnykh
Homeworks
Homework review sessions
 Session 1, March 1
 Session 2, March 15
 Session 3, April 5
 Session 4, April 26
[Final Exam] due May 10