PHY554 fall 2016
Class meet time and dates  Instructors 



Contents
Course Overview
The graduate/senior undergraduate level course focuses on the fundamental physics and key concepts of modern particle accelerators. The course is intended for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students who want to familiarize themselves with principles of accelerating charged particles and gain knowledge about contemporary particle accelerators and their applications.
It will cover the following contents:
 History of accelerators and basic principles (eg. centre of mass energy, luminosity, accelerating gradient, etc)
 Radio Frequency cavities, linacs, SRF accelerators;
 Magnets, Transverse motion, Strong focusing, simple lattices; Nonlinearities and resonances;
 Circulating beams, Longitutdinal dynamics, Synchrotron radiation; principles of beam cooling,
 Applications of accelerators: light sources, medical uses
Students will be evaluated based on the following performances: final presentation on specific research paper (40%), homework assignments (40%) and class participation (20%).
Learning Goals
Students who have completed this course should
 Understand how various types of accelerators work and understand differences between them.
 Have a general understanding of transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics in accelerators.
 Have a general understanding of accelerating structures.
 Understand major applications of accelerators and the recent new concepts.
Textbook and suggested materials
Textbook is to be decided from the following:
 Accelerator Physics, by S. Y. Lee
 An Introduction to the Physics of High Energy Accelerators, by D. A. Edwards and M. J. Syphers
 Introduction To The Physics Of Particle Accelerators, by Mario Conte and William W Mackay
 Particle Accelerator Physics, by Helmut Wiedemann
 The Physics of Particle Accelerators: An Introduction, by Klaus Wille and Jason McFall
10+ S.Y. Lee's and EdwardsSyphers' books are available in BNL library.
Course Description
 Visiting to BNL
This class you will spend at BNL and will tour the kaleidoscope of worldclass accelerators – from small superbright linacs to giant ring of superconducting Relativist Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Don’t miss this tour – it is once in a lifetime opportunity
 Introduction to accelerator physics
You will have a glance into the history of accelerators and will learn about a variety of accelerators from electrostatic TVtubes to gigantic atom and nuclear smashers. Basic figures of merit will be introduced (center of mass energy, luminosity, accelerating gradient, etc.) You will learn general principles behing linear accelerators and circular accelerators, their relative advantages and disadvantages.
 Radio frequency cavities, linacs, superconducting RF accelerators
This part of the course will be dedicated to physics and technology of accelerating structures. You will learn basic principles of using radio frequency electromagnetic fields to accelerate particles to very high energies. Different types of accelerating structures will be introduced. You will also learn about brand new direction in linear accelerators – socalled energy recovery linacs. As many modern accelerators are based on superconducting RF (SRF) technlogy, you will learn fundamentals of the SRF accelerators and their advantages over conventional (normal conductoing) RF accelerators.
 Linear transverse beam dynamics
This part of the course will be dedicated to detailed description of linear dynamics of particles in accelerators. You will learn about similarity of particles motion to an oscillator with timedependent rigidity, matrix optics of various elements in accelerators, equation for beam envelopes and stability of periodic (circular) motion of the particles. Here you find a number of analogies with planetary motion, including oscillation of Earth’s moon. You will learn some “standards” of the accelerator physics – betatron tunes and betafunction and their importance in circular accelerators.
 Nonlinear transverse beam dynamics
This lecture will open door in fascinating and neverending elegance and complexity on nonlinear beam dynamics. You will learn about nonlinear resonances, which may affect stability of the particles and about their location on the tune diagram. You will learn about chromatic (energy dependent) effects, use of nonlinear elements to compensate them, and about problems created by introducing them. Some of traditional perturbation theory methods will be introduced during this lecture.
 Longitudinal beam dynamics
If you were ever wondering why Saturn rings do not collapse into one large ball of rock under gravitational attraction – this where you will learn of the effect socalled negative mass in longitudinal motion of particles. You will also learn about socalled synchrotron oscillations, which are have a lot of similarity with pendulum motion. One more “tunes” to remember about  synchrotron tune.
 Radiation effects
Charged particles going around an accelerator do radiate when their trajectory is bent – hence, there is entire range of topics arising from this fact. It goes from such effect as radiation damping of the particle oscillations, quantum excitation of such oscillation to the use of this extraordinary radiation as cuttingedge research tool. We will look both into positive (usefulness of synchrotron and FEL radiation) and negative (limiting the energy of electron storage rings) aspects of this natural phenomenon.
 Accelerator applications
We will devote this part of the course to the discussion of variety of accelerator application, among which are accelerators for nuclear and particle physics, Xray light sources, accelerators for medical uses, etc. You will also learn about future accelerators at the energy and intensity forntiers as well as about new methods of particle acceleration.
Lecture Notes
 PHY554 Lecture 1, Modern Accelerators, by Prof. VN Litvinenko
 PHY554 Lecture 2, History of Accelerators, Part I, by Prof. VN Litvinenko
 PHY554 Lecture 3, History of Accelerators, Part II, by Prof. VN Litvinenko
 PHY554 Lecture 4,Transverse (Betatron) Motion, by Prof. Y. Jing
 PHY554 Lecture 5, Floquet Theorem, Phase space, by Prof. Y. Jing
 PHY554 Lecture 6, Emittance, Closed orbit, by Prof. Y. Jing
 PHY554 Lecture 7, Offmomentum particles, dispersion function, by Prof. Y. Jing
 PHY554 Lecture 8, Betatron tune shift, parametric resonance, by Prof. Y. Jing
 PHY554 Lecture 9, Introduction to RF accelerators, by Prof. VN Litvinenko
 PHY554 Lecture 10, RF accelerators, fundamentals, by Prof. VN Litvinenko
 PHY554 Lecture 11, RF and SRF accelerators, by Prof. VN Litvinenko
 PHY554 Lecture 121, Nonlinear effects: chromaticity, by Prof. Y. Jing
 PHY554 Lecture 122, Lattice design considerations, Nonlinear effects, by Prof. Y. Jing
 PHY554 Lecture 1314, Longitudinal Dynamics, by Prof. Y. Hao
 PHY554 Lecture 15, Nonlinear dynamics, resonances, Lie algebra methods, by Prof. Y. Jing
 PHY554 Lecture 16, Beam Dynamics in Electron Storage Ring, by Prof. Y. Hao
 PHY554 Lecture 17, Synchrotron Radiation, by Prof. G. Wang
 Derivations for Lecture 17, Synchrotron Radiation, by Prof. G. Wang
 PHY554 Lectures 1819, Synchrotron Radiation Sources, by Prof. VN Litvinenko
 PHY554 Lecture 20, Collective effects and instabilities, by Prof. G. Wang
 PHY554 Lectures 2122, Free Electron Lasers, by Prof. G. Wang
 PHY554 Lectures 23, Beam Cooling, by Prof. G. Wang
 matlab script to test stochastic cooling, change the file name to SC_test.m, by Prof. G. Wang
 PHY554 Lecture 24, Advanced Acceleration Methods, by Prof. VN Litvinenko
 PHY554 Lectures 25 & 26, Scientific and Societal Applications of Accelerators, by Prof. VN Litvinenko
List of suggested projects
Student's presentations
 Kelsey Buggelli, Polarized Electron Source:Gatling Gun
 Mael Flament, ebeam welding & machining
 Sukho Kongtawong, Low Emittance Storage Ring for Light Sources
 Xiangdong Li, Electron Cooling
 Jun Ma, Simulations for Coherent Electron Cooling
 Kentaro Mihara, Space charge effect
 Irina Petrushina, SRF System for Coherent electron Cooling
 Kai Shih, BeamBeam Effects
 Dhananjay K Ravikumar, Cryogenics : The cool part of accelerators